Islamic Creed | Correct Aqidah

Creed of Islam. Pillars of Iman. Tauhid. Eman. Tawhid. Touheed. Thowheed

150. Destiny (Qadaa and Qadr)

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Imam Ibn Qudaamah wrote: “And from the Attributes of Allaah the Most High is that He is the Doer of whatever He wills. Nothing occurs except with His Will. Nothing in the world is outside of His valuation (taqdeer) and everything happens according to His planning (tadbeer). The decreed destiny is unavoidable and nothing goes beyond what is written in the Protected Tablet (al-Lawh al-Mahfooz).”

Qadaa / Qadha (القَضاء) linguistically means hukm (ruling; judgement) and Qadr / Qadar means taqdeer (measurement).

Shaykh Al-‘Uthaymeen said regarding them: “Qadaa and Qadr have different meanings when mentioned together and are synonyms when mentioned separately… Qadr is what Allaah destined from eternity to exist in His creation. On the other hand, Qadaa is what Allaah decides concerning His creatures regarding their creation, annihilation or transformation. Thus, Qadr precedes Qadaa.” (Sharh al-‘Aqeedah al-Waasitiyyah, p. 411)

Faith in qadaa and qadr is one of the six pillars of Imaan / eemaan. “Eemaan is that you truly believe in Allaah and His angels and His books and His messengers and in the Last Day, and that you truly believe in qadr (Predecree) the good of it and the bad of it.” (Part of the hadeeth narrated by ‘Umar ibn al Khattaab recorded by Muslim, Ahmad, ibn Maajah and at Tirmidhee)

Shaykh Al-‘Uthaymeen identified four main issues necessary for the belief in Qadr to be correct and complete:
1. Belief that Allaah knows everything in general and in detail by His prior knowledge based on His statement:

“Do you not know that Allaah knows what is in the heavens and earth? Indeed that is in a book. Indeed that is easy for Allaah.” (Qur’an Chapter al-Hajj, 22: 80)

2. That Allaah wrote in the Lawh al-Mahfooz the destiny of everything based on Allaah’s statement:

“No calamity strikes in the earth or in yourselves except that it is in a book before I bring it into existence.” (Qur’an Chapter al-Hadeed, 57: 22)

And based on the Prophet’s statement: “Indeed Allaah fixed the destiny of creation 50,000 years before creating the heavens and earth.” (Muslim).

3. Everything in the heavens and earth is by Allaah’s will and wish, between His mercy and wisdom. He guides whom He wishes by His mercy and misguides whom He wishes by His wisdom. Whatever happens is in accordance with His prior knowledge and what He wrote in the Lawh al-Mahfooz based on His statements:

“Indeed I created everything measured.” (Qur’an Chapter al-Qamar, 54: 49)

“Whoever Allaah wishes to guide, He opens his chest to Islam…” (Qur’an Chapter al-An‘aam, 6: 125)

Whereby He attributes guidance and misguidance to His wish.

4. That everything in the heavens and earth are creations of Allah Most High and there is no other creator besides Him or Lord except Him based on His statement:

“He created everything and destined its measure.”(Qur’an Chapter al-Furqaan, 25: 2)

(Sharh Lum‘atul-I‘tiqaad, pp. 92-3)

About al lawh al mahfoodh / Lawh al-Mahfooz (the Preserved Tablet) by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al ‘Uthaymeen:

We do not know what its form is, from which substance (it is made), whether it is made from wood or from iron. We do not know its size nor its width. Allah is more knowledgeable about that. And it is obligatory for us to truly believe that there is a Tablet in which Allah wrote the decreed measures of everything. And we are not entitled to delve (into this matter) beyond that.  (Sharh al Arba’een an Nawawiyyah)

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