Islamic Creed | Correct Aqidah

Creed of Islam. Pillars of Iman. Tauhid. Eman. Tawhid. Touheed. Thowheed

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Is Iman/Eemaan ALL about theories, concepts or articles of Faith? NO!

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Linguistically, Iman الإيمان is testimony while Islam is surrender. But, the technical definition combines the two to include testimony of the heart, attestation by the tongue and affirmation with deeds.

 

ImanAllah says

…but Allah has endeared to you the faith and has made it pleasing in your hearts and has made hateful to you disbelief, defiance and disobedience. Those are the [rightly] guided (Qur’an 49:7)

Imam Bukhari (RA) records the below hadeeth in “Kitab al-Iman” chapter of Sahih Bukhari. Note that Bukhari equates Islam with Iman (i.e. he goes with the technical or Shari’ah definition)

Narrated Abu Musa (RA): Some people asked Allah’s Apostle (pbuh), “Whose Islam is the best? i.e. (Who is a very good Muslim)?” He replied, “One who avoids harming the Muslims with his tongue and hands

The below hadeeth is explicit. It clearly states Iman includes ACTIONS.

Abu Hurayrah (RA) narrated that the Prophet (pbuh) said: “Iman has more than 70 branches. The most excellent among these branches is the saying of “Laa ilaaha ill Allah” (there is no deity worthy of worship except Allah), and the smallest branch is to remove an obstacle from the wayside. And Haya (modesty, shyness, bashfulness, honour, humility, etc.) is an important branch of Iman.” (Sahih Muslim)

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Written by S Ibrahim

Jul 18, 2014 at 12:13 am

Do you KNOW what you BELIEVE? Are your beliefs the same as those of Prophet’s?

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Questions

  1. Are the Angels and Jinns the same creatures? Do ghosts (souls of dead) exist?
  2. Qadr: If Allah knows if you would go to Heaven or Hell, why should you do good?
  3. If Allah is really Merciful, then why did tsunami & wars happen?
  4. Why shouldn’t you, while in distress, call “Ya Muhyiddeen” (or, “Ya Ghawth“) even though you believe Allah is the Helper and Muhyideen Abdul Qadir Jilani is only an intermediary?
  5. Do you know if Jesus (Prophet ‘Eesa) would come back?
  6. If a person is married but have no kids for 10 years, do you think Allah is being harsh on him?
  7. Is social democracy the best form of Government for our times?
  8. Are the punishments in the grave real, or just spiritual or illusory?
  9. Was Islam founded or established by Prophet Muhammad (pbuh)? No. Or, is Islam the religion of all Prophets (AH)? Yes
  10. You are committing minor sins (We all do), and your friends / relatives demand that you do a major sin. You refuse. They say, “Well, you are not a holy man. Come on, just do it once”. How would you respond? Why is it NOT OK to commit major sins?
  11. Will all those who are born to Muslim parents go to Heaven (at least after some punishment in Hell)? No
  12. What are the conditions / requirements to get into Heaven (Jannah)? Will doing more good deeds (more charity, sunnah prayers, etc.) in this world make any difference in the Hereafter?
  13. Are there differences in punishments for those who enter Hell (Jahannam or Naar)? Are there levels in Hellfire?
  14. Were the original Torah (Taurat) and Bible (Injeel) revealed by Allah? Or, were they created by humans?
  15. Prophet (pbuh) said, “The space taken up in the Hereafter by something as little as the whip of one of you is better than the whole of this earth and what is on it.” (Sahih Bukhari). He (pbuh) is basically saying an inch of the paradise is better than the whole world & its riches. Do you think there is some exaggeration in this? No

 

This blog will, insha Allah, try to provide some introductory materials on the matters of our faith (Iman or Eemaan). Most Aalims (Ulema or Scholars) don’t talk or write about these matters (Pillars of FAITH) as they talk about pillars of Islam or other issues.

 

What would happen to a tree without roots?

What would happen to a building with a weak foundation?

A strong Islam, a strong community need a strong Iman / Faith.  And, logically one can’t claim to believe in something if he has no knowledge about it. We all know the six items to believe in. But, how do we believe in each of those six? What is our belief about Messengers? How much do we know about Hereafter, and so on.

 

Meaning of Aqeedah

The term Aqeedah comes from Aqd (Ayn, Qaf, Daal), meaning knot, affirmed, deliberate. Its plural is Aqaaidh. From the shariah perspective, Aqeedah means “Certainty of belief and being contented”

Aqeedah is the matter of knowledge. The Muslim must believe in his/her heart and have faith and conviction, with no doubts or misgivings

 

What do we Believe?

The Messenger has believed in what was revealed to him from his Lord, and [so have] the believers. All of them have believed in Allah and His angels and His books and His messengers, [saying], “We make no distinction between any of His messengers.” And they say, “We hear and we obey. [We seek] Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the [final] destination.” (Qur’an 2:285)

In the famous Hadeeth of Jibreel, we see “… He (the Messenger of Allah) answered, “It is that you believe in Allah and His angels and His Books and His Messengers and in the Last Day, and in fate (qadar), both in its good and in its evil aspects.” (Sahih Muslim)

In the matters of faith, as in all aspects of Islam, we should go to the correct sources of knowledge – Qur’an and authentic Hadeeths. It is critical that we believe exactly like the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) did.

 

Order of Chapters in Sahih Bukhari

The great Imam Muhammad ibn Ismail al-Bukhari (may Allah have mercy on him) began his book with “The Beginning of Revelation” and then he followed it with chapters on faith, followed by the chapters on knowledge. As if he means to point out that the first obligation upon a human being is faith or Iman and the way to attaining faith is knowledge. And the source of faith and knowledge is revelation. So he began by showing how the revelation occurred and what it was like. Then he followed by mentioning faith and knowledge. This arrangement is no accident; by it he makes some important points

 

Where do we begin the journey of knowledge

Start from the definitions, benefits, categories, etc of Tawheed at https://islaamiccreed.wordpress.com/2010/01/

 

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Written by S Ibrahim

Jun 15, 2014 at 8:31 pm

Belief in the Day of Judgment / Day of Resurrection

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The mutual rivalry for piling up of worldly things diverts you, Until you visit the graves (i.e. till you die). (Qur’an 102:1-2)

What?

Muslims believe that the present life is only a trial preparation for the next realm of existence.  This life is a test for each individual for the life after death.  A day will come when the whole universe will be destroyed and the dead will be resurrected for judgment by God.  This day will be the beginning of a life that will never end.  This day is the Day of Judgment.  On that day, all people will be rewarded by God according to their beliefs and deeds. (Source: http://www.islam-guide.com/ch3-5.htm)

And those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah – Islamic Monotheism) and do righteous good deeds, they are dwellers of Paradise, they will dwell therein forever. (Qur’an 2:82)

Belief in the Day of Judgment is part of our Imaan or faith.

Why?

To establish accountability & absolute justice. Humans naturally seek justice in all aspects of their lives. For our work, we expect pay or salary. When an individual is harmed, he seeks compensation. Even though humans strive hard to establish justice, the reality is that this world will never be perfectly just. Many criminals go unpunished while the oppressed are denied basic rights. Do their lives simply dissolve without any accountability or fair dealing? Should the powerful persecutors of innocents (e.g.: Pharaoh, Abu Jahl, Hitler, Stalin, Mussolini, etc.)  go unpunished forever?

Or do those who commit evils think We will make them like those who have believed and done righteous deeds – [make them] equal in their life and their death? Evil is that which they judge. (Qu’ran 45:21)

 

That Day, the people will depart separated [into categories] to be shown [the result of] their deeds. So whoever does an atom’s weight of good will see it,And whoever does an atom’s weight of evil will see it. (Qur’an 99:6-8)

How?

Record of our deeds:

And [for] every person We have imposed his fate upon his neck, and We will produce for him on the Day of Resurrection a record which he will encounter spread open. [It will be said], “Read your record. Sufficient is yourself against you this Day as accountant.” (Qur’an 17:13-14)

Witness:

That Day, We will seal over their mouths, and their hands will speak to Us, and their feet will testify about what they used to earn (Qur’an 36:65)

When?

Only God knows when it will happen.

Indeed, Allah [alone] has knowledge of the Hour and sends down the rain and knows what is in the wombs. And no soul perceives what it will earn tomorrow, and no soul perceives in what land it will die. Indeed, Allah is Knowing and Acquainted. (Qur’an 31:34)

 

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Written by S Ibrahim

Jun 7, 2014 at 3:22 pm

Belief in Angels (A Pillar of Imaan)

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Faith in Angels

Allah says in the Qur’an (2:285)

The Messenger has believed in what was revealed to him from his Lord, and [so have] the believers. All of them have believed in Allah and His angels and His books and His messengers, [saying], “We make no distinction between any of His messengers.” And they say, “We hear and we obey. [We seek] Your forgiveness, our Lord, and to You is the [final] destination.”

‘Umar Ibn Khattab (RA) related that Angel Gabriel asked the Prophet (pbuh): “What is Faith (eemaan)?” and he replied, “To believe in Allah, His angels, His Books, His messengers, the Last Day, and the good and evil of Destiny” (Sahih Muslim)

Their creation

‘Aisha (RA) reported that the Prophet (pbuh) said: “The angels were created from light, the jinn were created from a smokeless flame of fire, and Adam was created from what has been described to you” (Sahih Muslim)

Being created from light does not mean they are light.  Point to ponder: We, humans, aren’t mud or liquid.

Do the angels have any physical attributes? Yes!

Allah mentions their wings in Qur’an 35:1

[All] praise is [due] to Allah , Creator of the heavens and the earth, [who] made the angels messengers having wings, two or three or four. He increases in creation what He wills. Indeed, Allah is over all things competent

He also mentions the angels’ hands in Qur’an 6:93

…And if you could but see when the wrongdoers are in the overwhelming pangs of death while the angels extend their hands, [saying], “Discharge your souls! Today you will be awarded the punishment of [extreme] humiliation for what you used to say against Allah other than the truth and [that] you were, toward His verses, being arrogant.”

‘Aisha (RA) was asked about the verse (which means): “Then he [Jibreel] approached and descended.” [Quran 53:8]. She said, “That is Jibreel. He used to come to him (the Prophet ) in human form, but on this occasion he came in his real form, and he filled the horizons of the sky.” [Sahih Muslim]

What do they do?

They do many things. Here are a few:

Allah mentions the worship of angels in Qur’an 21:19 – 20

To Him belongs whoever is in the heavens and the earth. And those near Him are not prevented by arrogance from His worship, nor do they tire.
They exalt [Him] night and day [and] do not slacken.

God mentions, in Qur’an 82:10 – 11, that angels record what we do

But verily, over you (are appointed angels in charge of mankind) to watch you
Noble and recording (your deeds)

Allah mentions, in Qur’an 69:17, that eight angels will carry His Arsh (throne) on the day of Judgement

And the angels will be on its sides, and eight angels will, that Day, bear the Throne of your Lord above them

Abu Hurayra (RA) quoted the Messenger of Allah (pbuh) as saying, “When the deceased is buried, two blue-black angels come to him,one of them is called Munkar and the other Nakeer” (Sunan Tirmidhi)

In Abu Sa’eed al-Khudree’s hadeeth on the Day of Judgment, the Prophet (pbuh) said, “Then Allaah, Exalted and Great, will say: ‘The angels have interceded, the messengers have interceded and the believers have interceded, and no one remains [to intercede] except the Most Merciful of the merciful.’ He will then take a handful from the Fire and bring out from it people who never did any good and who had been turned into charcoal, and cast them into a river called the river of life, on the outskirts of Paradise … ” [Sahih Muslim]

Allah mentions angels of Hell in Qur’an 66:6

O you who have believed, protect yourselves and your families from a Fire whose fuel is people and stones, over which are [appointed] angels, harsh and severe; they do not disobey Allah in what He commands them but do what they are commanded

The above verse also makes it clear that  angels don’t commit any sin (clue: do not disobey Allah), and they don’t have freewill

Note: Israeel is not the name of the angel of death. There is no proof for that.

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Written by S Ibrahim

Aug 21, 2013 at 12:59 am

The good and bad Jinn, and Messengers among Jinn

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Jinn are creatures of God, and they remain hidden to us. They are not evil/bad angels. They are different from angels (Malaaikah). Angels don’t disobey Allah.

Their Creation

Allah says, in Surah al-Hijr, about how He created humans and Jinn:

And We did certainly create man out of clay from an altered black mud. And the jinn We created before from scorching fire (15:26-27)

He also says in Surah ar-Rahman,

And He created the jinn from a smokeless flame of fire (55:15)

The Good and Bad

Jinn and human have some similarities – they can choose to be good or bad, they can worship Allah or disobey Him. Like humans, some Jinn follow the truth. Mankind and jinn have the freedom of choice, while the angels don’t have that. Allah cites the same reason for the creation of human and jinn

And I did not create the jinn and mankind except to worship Me (51:56)

The good among them submit to God, while the evil jinn disbelieve. Allah says in Surah al-Jinn

‘And of us some are Muslims (who have submitted to Allah, after listening to this Quran), and of us some are Al-Qasitun (disbelievers those who have deviated from the Right Path)’. And whosoever has embraced Islam (i.e. has become a Muslim by submitting to Allah), then such have sought the Right Path.”

And as for the Qasitun (disbelievers who deviated from the Right Path), they shall be firewood for Hell (72:14-15)

Shaytan/Shayateen (Plural): The jinn who disbelieve and disobey Allah are called Shayatin, and they try to harm the people. They falsify things to people, and try to mislead them. They beautify evil deeds, and make us believe the good deeds as boring. For their misdeeds, Allah will send them to Hell

…And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled: “Surely, I shall fill Hell with jinns and men all together.” (11:119)

And thus We have made for every prophet an enemy – devils from mankind and jinn, inspiring to one another decorative speech in delusion. (6:112)

And [mention, O Muhammad], the Day when He will gather them together [and say], “O company of jinn, you have [misled] many of mankind.” And their allies among mankind will say, “Our Lord, some of us made use of others, and we have [now] reached our term, which you appointed for us.” He will say, “The Fire is your residence, wherein you will abide eternally, except for what Allah wills. Indeed, your Lord is Wise and Knowing.” (6:128)

Iblis is a bad jinn (No. He is not a bad angel).  We often use the term Shaitaan to refer to him. He was very proud and that led him to disobey Allah’s command. Allah mentions in Surah al-Kahf

And [mention] when We said to the angels, “Prostrate to Adam,” and they prostrated, except for Iblees. He was of the jinn and departed from the command of his Lord. Then will you take him and his descendants as allies other than Me while they are enemies to you? Wretched it is for the wrongdoers as an exchange. (18:50)

Interaction with men:

Some jinn are useful to men. Prophet Sulaiman (AS) had many jinn who worked for him.

And to Solomon [We subjected] the wind – its morning [journey was that of] a month – and its afternoon [journey was that of] a month, and We made flow for him a spring of [liquid] copper. And among the jinn were those who worked for him by the permission of his Lord… (34:12)

Some evil men interact with evil jinn.

‘And verily, there were men among mankind who took shelter with the men among the jinns, but they (jinns) increased them (mankind) in sin and disbelief. (72:6)

Some good jinn visited Prophet Muhammad (SAW) and listened to the recitation of Qur’an.

And [mention, O Muhammad], when We directed to you a few of the jinn, listening to the Qur’an. And when they attended it, they said, “Listen quietly.” And when it was concluded, they went back to their people as warners. (46:29)

Say, [O Muhammad], “It has been revealed to me that a group of the jinn listened and said, ‘Indeed, we have heard an amazing Qur’an. (72:1)

Messengers among Jinn:

Allah has sent rasuls (Messengers) to jinn, just as He did for humans. Allah mentions in Surah al-An’am

“O company of jinn and mankind, did there not come to you messengers from among you, relating to you My verses and warning you of the meeting of this Day of yours?” They will say, “We bear witness against ourselves”; and the worldly life had deluded them, and they will bear witness against themselves that they were disbelievers. (6:130)

Please note that there’s a consensus among the scholars that the Prophet (SAW) was sent to both man and jinn.

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Written by S Ibrahim

Mar 2, 2013 at 3:54 pm

The Untold History of the Khaleefas

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imprint of the historical seal of Muhammad. Th...

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Earlier Post: Judiciary in an ancient empire. Can you identify its leader?

The best people to convey Allah’s Guidance and commands were the prophets and messengers. The best & last of them was Muhammad (pbuh). We are not going to get any more. The next best (i.e. 2nd best) people in terms of understanding Allah’s Guidance and commands were the students of the final messenger (i.e. Companions, Sahabas). That is not just logical, but the final messenger himself told so. “The best of people is my generation, then those who come after them, then those who come after them”. [Bukhari and Muslim]

Nobody, in Islam, becomes “Best” without excellent knowledge. If anyone thinks that companions (Sahabas) were best in piety, worship & obedience but not in knowledge, then he doesn’t understand the importance of knowledge in Islam. He contradicts a Quranic verse “It is only those who have knowledge among His servants that fear Allah” (Qur’an 35:28). He also seem to ignore the Prophet’s sayings which instruct us to learn certain things from certain companions.

If any Aalim / Shaykh thinks that he has a better, smarter, or more knowledgeable way, here is a warning from Prophet himself: “And this Ummah will divide into seventy-three sects all of which except one will go to Hell and they (i.e. the Saved Sect) are those who are upon what I and My Companions are upon (i.e. those who follow My Way and the Way of my Companions.)” [Reported by at-Tirmidhee]

The best among the sahabas are the khaleefas (Caliphs, Khulafaa). Please see the attached file Follow the Khaleefas – Some hadeeths for hadiths ordering us to follow them. When you obey the Messenger (pbuh), you are actually obeying Allah (because, it is Allah who ordered us to obey His Messenger). When you follow the Khaleefas, you are actually following the Messenger (pbuh) (because it is the Messenger who ordered us to follow his Khaleefas). In other words, the status of the Messenger and his khaleefas come from the orders of Allah & His Messenger respectively.

A few brothers have an understanding that Prophet told us to follow his khaleefas only in political and administrative matters. This is an incorrect understanding. Those who know usool al-Fiqh & the history of fiqh wouldn’t say such a thing. Neither the Prophet, nor anyone from early generations nor the later Imams hinted anything like “follow them in political and administrative, but ignore their Islamic things”. They never distinguished religion from worldly affairs, like politics. Also, there is nothing in the hadeeths restricting the applicability of those commands only to his companions. So, how can you & I who live several generations after the khaleefas follow political and administrative decrees / rulings of Abu Bakr, Umar etc.

For those who say “We know Astronomy better than Sahabas”, the response is: Knowledge of Astronomy (or Medicine or engineering) doesn’t make a Muslim better or more deserving of Paradise. If it were the case, Muslims who would come in the future are better than us, because they’d have more knowledge of Astronomy than us. And, the best Muslims would be those who live closest to the Last Day. Is that the case? I can write more, but this should suffice for those who seek clarification.

Clarification: Islamic Shariah comprises only Qur’an and Sunnah. We are not talking about adding “Sahabas” as a 3rd source of Shariah. We are also not talking about blindly following them (Taqleed). Prophet himself made a few mistakes (e.g.: ignoring the old blind companion while doing Da’wa, being lenient to the Badr prisoners of war, etc) and Allah corrected him. These mistakes don’t reduce the status of our Prophet (pbuh). The best sahabas made some mistakes too. That doesn’t bring them down to our level. Those mistakes don’t make our Aalims equal to them.

Now, how do we follow khaleefas / caliphs when we don’t know about them? Some Muslims say that Khilafat is the solution to all of the community’s problems. How could a good Khilafat be established when people know very little about the best Khalifas? Assuming if people get political power, what kind of government would they establish?

One academic mentioned the below to Dr. ‘Ali Muhammad As-Sallaabee, author of Prophet’s and Khaleefas’ biographies:

“There now exists a chasm between Muslims and the era of the rightly guided Khaleefas. The priority of the Muslims are out of whack, with many of them knowing a great deal about the lives of scholars from recent centuries, and comparatively little about the lives of the rightly guided khaleefas. To be sure, much can be learned from the era of rightly guided Khaleefas, for it was an era that was replete with lessons about just governance, sound economic policies, military heroics, good manners, Islamic jurisprudence (fiqh) – and the necessary steps that must be taken in order to establish a stable, just, upright, and God-fearing society. These are the very lessons Muslims desperately need to learn about today”. What is the legacy of the Aalim / Shyakh / Imam we know, adore and follow?

The Khaleefas accomplished phenomenal success in many areas, despite limited resources and time. For example, Abu Bakr ruled the young nation just for 2 years & 2 months – his achievements last even now. He defeated Persia and Roman empires, rooted out apostasy from the Arabian Peninsula with an all-out assault against Apostates, and compiled Quran in one book. The areas they conquered (Egypt, Sudan, Morocco, Syria, Iraq etc) are still Muslim countries. The fact that rightly guided khaleefahs achieved accomplishments of astounding magnitude that continued until today is a living proof that Allah blessed their efforts because of their knowledge, piety, steadfastness, and hard work. They wanted to please only Allaah. They had no other agenda.

What is our agenda? Whom do we want to please? And, whose understanding of Qur’an and Hadeeths do we want to follow?

Insha Allah, i will try to post a few events and lessons from the lives of khaleefas, and some extracts from their letters and speeches in http://seyedibrahim.wordpress.com/

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Written by S Ibrahim

Jan 15, 2012 at 7:10 pm

150. Destiny (Qadaa and Qadr)

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Imam Ibn Qudaamah wrote: “And from the Attributes of Allaah the Most High is that He is the Doer of whatever He wills. Nothing occurs except with His Will. Nothing in the world is outside of His valuation (taqdeer) and everything happens according to His planning (tadbeer). The decreed destiny is unavoidable and nothing goes beyond what is written in the Protected Tablet (al-Lawh al-Mahfooz).”

Qadaa / Qadha (القَضاء) linguistically means hukm (ruling; judgement) and Qadr / Qadar means taqdeer (measurement).

Shaykh Al-‘Uthaymeen said regarding them: “Qadaa and Qadr have different meanings when mentioned together and are synonyms when mentioned separately… Qadr is what Allaah destined from eternity to exist in His creation. On the other hand, Qadaa is what Allaah decides concerning His creatures regarding their creation, annihilation or transformation. Thus, Qadr precedes Qadaa.” (Sharh al-‘Aqeedah al-Waasitiyyah, p. 411)

Faith in qadaa and qadr is one of the six pillars of Imaan / eemaan. “Eemaan is that you truly believe in Allaah and His angels and His books and His messengers and in the Last Day, and that you truly believe in qadr (Predecree) the good of it and the bad of it.” (Part of the hadeeth narrated by ‘Umar ibn al Khattaab recorded by Muslim, Ahmad, ibn Maajah and at Tirmidhee)

Shaykh Al-‘Uthaymeen identified four main issues necessary for the belief in Qadr to be correct and complete:
1. Belief that Allaah knows everything in general and in detail by His prior knowledge based on His statement:

“Do you not know that Allaah knows what is in the heavens and earth? Indeed that is in a book. Indeed that is easy for Allaah.” (Qur’an Chapter al-Hajj, 22: 80)

2. That Allaah wrote in the Lawh al-Mahfooz the destiny of everything based on Allaah’s statement:

“No calamity strikes in the earth or in yourselves except that it is in a book before I bring it into existence.” (Qur’an Chapter al-Hadeed, 57: 22)

And based on the Prophet’s statement: “Indeed Allaah fixed the destiny of creation 50,000 years before creating the heavens and earth.” (Muslim).

3. Everything in the heavens and earth is by Allaah’s will and wish, between His mercy and wisdom. He guides whom He wishes by His mercy and misguides whom He wishes by His wisdom. Whatever happens is in accordance with His prior knowledge and what He wrote in the Lawh al-Mahfooz based on His statements:

“Indeed I created everything measured.” (Qur’an Chapter al-Qamar, 54: 49)

“Whoever Allaah wishes to guide, He opens his chest to Islam…” (Qur’an Chapter al-An‘aam, 6: 125)

Whereby He attributes guidance and misguidance to His wish.

4. That everything in the heavens and earth are creations of Allah Most High and there is no other creator besides Him or Lord except Him based on His statement:

“He created everything and destined its measure.”(Qur’an Chapter al-Furqaan, 25: 2)

(Sharh Lum‘atul-I‘tiqaad, pp. 92-3)

About al lawh al mahfoodh / Lawh al-Mahfooz (the Preserved Tablet) by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al ‘Uthaymeen:

We do not know what its form is, from which substance (it is made), whether it is made from wood or from iron. We do not know its size nor its width. Allah is more knowledgeable about that. And it is obligatory for us to truly believe that there is a Tablet in which Allah wrote the decreed measures of everything. And we are not entitled to delve (into this matter) beyond that.  (Sharh al Arba’een an Nawawiyyah)

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