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151. Two main groups who erred in Qadaa and Qadr

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There were two Schools of thoughts among Ancient Greek (Pagans):

  1. Epicureans: Free will. Hedonism – Seek what’s pleasurable in life by any means
  2. Stoics: No free will – predetermined. You are a puppet on the string

Muslims went astray (i.e. got wrong ideas about destiny) after the Greek literatures were translated. Deviants among Muslims

A) The Jabrites (Jabariyyah) who claimed that the creature is forced to do its acts without any choice on its part. They are refuted by two points:

  • Allah attributed human acts to them and made them earning for which they are rewarded or punished. If they were forced to do them, the attribution of the acts to them would not be correct and punishment for them would be oppression. He says

“Today every soul will be rewarded for what they earned.” (Qur’an Chapter Ghaafir 40: 17)

  • Everyone knows the difference between an act of choice and a forced act in reality and in judgment. So if someone transgressed against another and claimed that he was forced to do it by Allah’s Qadaa and Qadr it would be considered stupidity

Before doing an act, the sinful person does not know what is destined for him and it is within his ability to do or not do it. So how can he take a wrong path and defend his action with the unknown destiny. Is it not more suitable for him to take the correct path and say: This is what was destined for me?

{

Satan has no control over us. We can’t say “Shaytan forced me to do evil deeds”. Neither Allah nor Shaitan forces people.

And Shaitan (Satan) will say when the matter has been decided: “Verily, Allah promised you a promise of truth. And I too promised you, but I betrayed you. I had no authority over you except that I called you, so you responded to me. So blame me not, but blame yourselves… [Surah Ibrahim 14:22]

}

B) The Qadrites (Qadariyyah) who claim that the creature is independent in its actions and that Allah has no will or power or creation in it. Their claim is also refuted by two points:

  • Their claim contradicts Allah’s statements:

“Allah is the creator of everything.” (Surah az-Zumar 39:62)

“And Allah created you and what you do.” (Surah as-Saaffaat 37: 96)

  • Allah is the owner of the heavens and earth.How is it possible that there be in His dominion things which are not dependent on His will and creation?

(Sharh Lum’atul-I’tiqaad)

Correct Faith: Humans freely choose, and Allah knows already what humans will choose. His knowledge of their choice didn’t make them to opt for that choice. Relative to Allah, the choices are known. Relative to us, the choices aren’t known until the situation occurs. Arguing / reflecting beyond this takes us to a situation with no answers.

Addendum: One brother requested more info on “Humans freely choose and Allah knows already what humans will choose”. How is that Allah knows what a person would do (in future), and yet Allah is not forcing that person?.

The answer: Allah is the Creator of everything, including time. He knows everything that happened everywhere, is happening and will happen. We only know a limited past events; we can focus only on a few things that are happening. And, we don’t know future. So, we can’t apply human examples to Allah.

But, at human level we can give a few examples where we may guess certain things in future, yet we are not forcing them. A simple one: We know (and say) that the Sun will set in the West. Do we force it to set in the West? No. A teacher may say, based on his assessment, that certain students will fail in the exams. The teacher’s comment didn’t force the students to fail. The students’ failure to study caused their failure in exams. (Again, Creator is not like Teacher)

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Written by S Ibrahim

Nov 7, 2011 at 3:37 pm

150. Destiny (Qadaa and Qadr)

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Imam Ibn Qudaamah wrote: “And from the Attributes of Allaah the Most High is that He is the Doer of whatever He wills. Nothing occurs except with His Will. Nothing in the world is outside of His valuation (taqdeer) and everything happens according to His planning (tadbeer). The decreed destiny is unavoidable and nothing goes beyond what is written in the Protected Tablet (al-Lawh al-Mahfooz).”

Qadaa / Qadha (القَضاء) linguistically means hukm (ruling; judgement) and Qadr / Qadar means taqdeer (measurement).

Shaykh Al-‘Uthaymeen said regarding them: “Qadaa and Qadr have different meanings when mentioned together and are synonyms when mentioned separately… Qadr is what Allaah destined from eternity to exist in His creation. On the other hand, Qadaa is what Allaah decides concerning His creatures regarding their creation, annihilation or transformation. Thus, Qadr precedes Qadaa.” (Sharh al-‘Aqeedah al-Waasitiyyah, p. 411)

Faith in qadaa and qadr is one of the six pillars of Imaan / eemaan. “Eemaan is that you truly believe in Allaah and His angels and His books and His messengers and in the Last Day, and that you truly believe in qadr (Predecree) the good of it and the bad of it.” (Part of the hadeeth narrated by ‘Umar ibn al Khattaab recorded by Muslim, Ahmad, ibn Maajah and at Tirmidhee)

Shaykh Al-‘Uthaymeen identified four main issues necessary for the belief in Qadr to be correct and complete:
1. Belief that Allaah knows everything in general and in detail by His prior knowledge based on His statement:

“Do you not know that Allaah knows what is in the heavens and earth? Indeed that is in a book. Indeed that is easy for Allaah.” (Qur’an Chapter al-Hajj, 22: 80)

2. That Allaah wrote in the Lawh al-Mahfooz the destiny of everything based on Allaah’s statement:

“No calamity strikes in the earth or in yourselves except that it is in a book before I bring it into existence.” (Qur’an Chapter al-Hadeed, 57: 22)

And based on the Prophet’s statement: “Indeed Allaah fixed the destiny of creation 50,000 years before creating the heavens and earth.” (Muslim).

3. Everything in the heavens and earth is by Allaah’s will and wish, between His mercy and wisdom. He guides whom He wishes by His mercy and misguides whom He wishes by His wisdom. Whatever happens is in accordance with His prior knowledge and what He wrote in the Lawh al-Mahfooz based on His statements:

“Indeed I created everything measured.” (Qur’an Chapter al-Qamar, 54: 49)

“Whoever Allaah wishes to guide, He opens his chest to Islam…” (Qur’an Chapter al-An‘aam, 6: 125)

Whereby He attributes guidance and misguidance to His wish.

4. That everything in the heavens and earth are creations of Allah Most High and there is no other creator besides Him or Lord except Him based on His statement:

“He created everything and destined its measure.”(Qur’an Chapter al-Furqaan, 25: 2)

(Sharh Lum‘atul-I‘tiqaad, pp. 92-3)

About al lawh al mahfoodh / Lawh al-Mahfooz (the Preserved Tablet) by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al ‘Uthaymeen:

We do not know what its form is, from which substance (it is made), whether it is made from wood or from iron. We do not know its size nor its width. Allah is more knowledgeable about that. And it is obligatory for us to truly believe that there is a Tablet in which Allah wrote the decreed measures of everything. And we are not entitled to delve (into this matter) beyond that.  (Sharh al Arba’een an Nawawiyyah)

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108. Believers will see Allah on the Day of Judgment

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Quran, Mus'haf_Al_Tajweed.

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Imam Ibn Qudaamah wrote:

In the next life, the believers will see their Lord with their own eyes. They will visit Him, and He will speak to them and they will speak to Him. Allaah, Most High, stated

“Some faces will be radiant on that day, gazing at their Lord.” (Qur’an Chapter al-Qiyaamah 75:22-23)

“No. On that day they will be veiled from their Lord.” (Qur’an Chapter al-Mutaffifeen 83: 15)

Since those are veiled due to [Allaah’s] anger, it indicates that the believers will see Him due to His pleasure [with them], otherwise there would be no difference between them.

The Prophet (pbuh) said: “Indeed you will see your Lord the way you see this moon. You will not struggle with crowds to see Him.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 1, no. 529 and Sahih Muslim, vol. 1, no. 1322)

‘Adee ibn Abee Haatim quoted the Prophet (pbuh) as saying:“Verily each one of you will see Allaah on the day when you must meet Him, and there will not be between Him and you a veil nor a translator.” (Sahih Al-Bukhari, vol. 9, no. 535)

Ibn ‘Umar also reported that the Prophet (pbuh) once said, “The day of Resurrection is the first day that any eye will look upon Allaah, Most Great and Glorious.” (An authentic narration collected by ad-Daaraqutnee and ad-Daarimee in his book ar-Radd ‘alal-Jahmiyyah, p. 57)

The Wisdom Behind Not Seeing Allaah

If God could be seen in this life, the tests of this life would be pointless. What makes this life a real test is the fact that we are obliged to believe in Allaah without actually seeing Him. If Allaah were visible, everyone would believe in Him and all that the Prophet (pbuh) taught. In fact, men would end up like angels, in total obedience to Allaah. Because Allaah made man to be higher than the angels, whose beliefs in Allaah was without choice, man’s choice of belief over disbelief had to be in a situation where Allaah’s existence could be questioned. Thus, Allaah has kept himself hidden from humankind and will continue to do so until the last day. (The Fundamentals of Tawheed, pp. 136-144)

Can we see Allah in this world? Did the Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) see Allaah in Miraj? Please click here for answers

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107. Advice of Caliph Umar Ibn Abdul Aziz

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Sunni Islam, Ahlu al-Sunnah were written, (Ara...

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Caliph ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul-‘Azeez was reported to have said, “Stop where the people [i.e., the Companions] stopped, for they stopped based on knowledge and restrained themselves due to deep insight. They were better able to uncover it, and if there was virtue in it they were most suitable to gain it. If you say: ‘Something new happened after them,’ [know that] those who disagreed with their guidance and preferred another sunnah beside theirs innovated regarding it. They [i.e., the Companions] described what fulfilled the need and what they spoke about was sufficient. No one expended more effort than them and those following them. Some people fell short of [following] them and went astray, while others passed them and became extremists. They were between that onstraight guidance.”

Source: Narrated by Ibn al-Jawzee in Manaaqib ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdil-‘Azeez, pp. 83-84 and Ibn Rajab in Fadl ‘Ilm as-Salaf, p. 36

The phrase “they stopped based on knowledge” indicates that their silence about issues was based on knowledge and fear of Allaah, not inability and weakness. Furthermore, the fact that those who came after them elaborated and expounded on certain issues is not evidence that they weremore knowledgeable than their predecessors. To put it bluntly, any body can talk about & philosophize any issue without an iota of knowledge about that subject.

Sh. Saalih Aal ash-Shaykh commented: “He divided the state of the sahaabah into two sections:

The first, that they “stopped based on knowledge”. The Companions are the most knowledgeable people from the nation of Muhammad. They were more suited to knowledge than those besides them and those who came after them had less knowledge. Thus, the Companions were knowledgeable; they had insight, they were virtuous, and they were enlightened. They fully understood the Qur’aan and the Sunnah. Tafseer (interpretation) of the Qur’aan is taken fundamentally from them [whether in the form of narrations from the Prophet or from their own explanations].

‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul-‘Azeez described them as “halting based on knowledge” from the Messenger of Allaah or from their understanding of the Qur’aan and the Sunnah according to the implications of Arabic or from what they taught each other.Therefore, all of their rulings were based on knowledge.

The second, what they avoided and were silent on. They did so based on deep insight. They did not delve into issues which those who followed them delved into due to their inability. No.They did so due to their sagacity and discernment; due to their foresight, understanding and knowledge. For they spoke based on knowledge which they found and what they were silent about was due to their foresight and insight. And this is what is obligatory on us, to cast aside the opinions, reasons, logic and understandings which conflict with that of the Companions of Allaah’s Messenger regarding issues of belief as well as the religion in general. Whatever the Companions believed and followed is the correct measure by which your understanding should be judged and by which affairs, situations and groups and people should be weighed. Because we were commanded to follow.

‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul-‘Azeez gave us this appropriate and convincing advice to follow the Companions because they spoke based on knowledge. It is obligatory to follow the guidance of the Companions, whether in issues of belief, practice, morals or worship and the like. Whatever goes beyond their way is extreme and whatever falls short is deficient and negligence. This statement of ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul-‘Azeez represents a general methodology (manhaj) followed by theleading scholars in issues of belief, actions and morals, etc.” (SharhLum‘atul-I‘tiqaad, Tape 772)

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Written by S Ibrahim

Mar 12, 2011 at 9:26 pm

106. Some Verses on the Divine Attributes

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The name of الله Allāh, written in Arabic call...

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Please read the previous post ‘Questions on each of Allah’s attributes‘ first

Among the verses on the Attributes are the statements of Allaah:

All that is on earth will disappear, but the Face of your Lord, Full of Majesty and Honor, will remain [Surah Ar-Rahman]

The attribute of “Face” is among the essential attributes and it clearly confirmed by this verse whereby it is attributed directly to Allaah in a possessive construction. What is attributed to Allaah is either a thaat [something actually existing] or a meaning or concept (ma‘naa). The thaats can either exist by themselves as in the case of “Allaah’s camel” and “Allaah’s house” or they cannot as in the case of “Allaah’s face” or “Allaah’s hand”, etc.  i.e., faces and hands do not exist by themselves without an owner

“Instead, His two hands are spread out.” (5:64)

This is also a case of attribution of and existence which cannot exist by itself, and as such is one of Allaah’s attributes.

If you start to give new meanings without proofs from Qur’an or Hadeeths, you create greater confusion. The deviants claim that “face” means “reward”. How did you come to this conclusion? If “hand” is translated as “ability”, then does “two hands” mean “two abilities”?

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Written by S Ibrahim

Feb 12, 2011 at 2:55 pm

105. Questions on each of Allah’s attributes

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Three questions may be asked about each and every one of Allaah’s attributes

Q: Is the attribute to be understood literally and why?

A: Yes, because the basic principle for understanding speech is according to its literal meaning. The literal meaning should not be avoided [by considering the attribute metaphorical] except if there exists authentic evidence which prevents us accepting the literal meaning. For example, Allaah states:

“… and I am closer to him than his jugular vein” (Surah Qaaf, 50:16)

This verse implies that Allaah is within human beings since the jugular vein is inside the necks of humans. However, such a meaning would imply that humans may worship other humans and themselves, both of which acts are forbidden. Furthermore, Allaah states elsewhere in the Qur’aan that

“They fear their Lord who is above them” (Surah anNahl, 15: 50)

Prophet Muhammad (pbuh) also declared a woman a true believer on the basis of her answering his question, “Where is Allaah?” by saying that He is above the heavens.[A long hadeeth from Sahih Muslim Vol. 1]

Q: Is it possible to describe how it is and why?

A: The answer is no, it is not permissible to describe how Allaah’s attributes are, due to the Almighty’s statement

“Their knowledge cannot encompass Him” (Surah Taahaa, 20: 110)

The human mind cannot comprehend how Allaah’s attributes operate. For example, human beings can hardly understand how they see; how the upside-down image that strikes the retina at the back of the eye is transformed into signals which are read by the brain. To understand how Allaah sees without eye apparatus, etc. is impossible

Q: Does it resemble human characteristics and why?

A: The answer is no, the divine attributes do not resemble the attributes of created beings, as the Almighty said

“Nothing is similar to Him…” (Surah Shooraa, 42: 11)

Allaah deserves absolute perfection, thus it is not possible for Him to resemble the creation because it is imperfect

Source: Introduction to Lum‘atul-I‘tiqaad by Shaykh Al-Uthaymeen

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Written by S Ibrahim

Feb 12, 2011 at 2:52 pm

104. Promotion of the Sunnah and Warnings Against Bid’ah

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Imam Ibn Qudaamah writes “We have been commanded to follow their {rightly guided predecessors} footsteps and be guided by their road signs. And we have been warned against innovations and informed that they are misguidance”. The Prophet (pbuh) said,

“Follow my sunnah and the sunnah of the rightly guided caliphs after me. Bite on firmly to it with your molars. And beware of innovated matters, for every innovation is bid‘ah and every bid‘ah is misguidance.” [Musnad Ahmad, vol. 4, Sunan at-Tirmithee, Sunan Abu Dawud, vol.3, Ibn Majah, vol 1]

‘Abdullaah ibn Mas‘ood – May Allaah be pleased with him – said: “Follow and do not innovate for you have [been left with] what is sufficient for you.” [Kashf ul Khafaa’, section ‘Hamza’]

‘Umar ibn ‘Abdul-‘Azeez was reported to have said, “Stop {refrain from delving into certain areas, and avoid speculation about them} where the people [i.e., the Companions] stopped, for they stopped based on knowledge and restrained themselves due to deep insight. They were better able to uncover it and if there was virtue in it they were most suitable to gain it. If you say: ‘Something new happened after them,’ [know that] those who disagreed with their guidance and preferred another sunnah beside theirs innovated regarding it. They [i.e., the Companions] described what fulfilled the need and what they spoke about was sufficient. No one expended more effort than them and those following them. Some people fell short of [following] them and went astray, while others passed them and became extremists. They were between that on straight guidance.” [Narrated by Ibn al-Jawzee in Manaaqib ‘Umar ibn ‘Abdil ‘Azeez, pp. 83-84 and Ibn Rajab in Fadl ‘Ilm as-Salaf]

An incident: Muhammad ibn ‘Abdir-Rahmaan al-Adramee said to a man who had spoken a bid‘ah {the claim that the Qur’aan was created} and invited people to it, “Did the Messenger of Allaah (pbuh), Aboo Bakr, ‘Umar, ‘Uthmaan and ‘Alee know it? Or did they not?”

The man replied, “They did not know it.”

He said, “So you know something they didn’t know?”

The man then said, “I say that they did know it.”

Al-Adramee said, “Was it appropriate for them not to speak about it or call people to it, or not?”

He replied, “It was appropriate for them.”

Muhammad then exclaimed, “Something which was appropriate for the Messenger of Allaah and his Caliphs is not appropriate for you!” {i.e. if they knew it but didn’t speak about it, why is that you are talking about it?}

The man then became silent. The Caliph, who was present at the time said, “Allaah will not elaborate [the meanings] for one who does not find appropriate what they found appropriate.” [narrated by al-Khateeb in Tareekh Baghdaad, vol. 10, Ibn Katheer in al-Bidaayah wan-Nihaayah, vol. 10, and ath-Thahabee in Siyar A‘laam an-Nubalaa, vol. 11]

Bottom line: If somebody comes up with any religious thing which was not conveyed / followed by Sahaba {companions of the Prophet Muhammad}, then he is saying he knows religion better than the people who were with the Prophet Muhammad

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Written by S Ibrahim

Jul 25, 2010 at 8:16 pm

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