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Archive for the ‘Qada and Qadr’ Category

153. Levels of belief in Qadar

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Belief in Qadr has four levels:

1. The first level is to have belief in the knowledge of Allah; which encompasses everything. Not even the like of the weight of an atom in the heavens or on the earth escapes His knowledge. And He knew about all His creation before He created them. He knew their provision, appointed terms, their speech and actions, all their doings, their secrets and open declarations, and who are the People of Paradise and the People of the Hellfire from among them.

2. The second level is to have belief in the recording of that knowledge; and that He wrote all that will exist according to His prior knowledge. Included in this is belief in the Preserved Tablet (al-Lawh al-Mahfooz).

3. The third level is to have belief in Allaah’s executive will and His omnipotence. They necessitate each other with respect to what was and what will be. But they do not necessitate each other with respect to what will not be and what was not. So what Allah wishes exists by His omnipotence, and it could not be any other way, and what Allah does not wish does not exist, due to the absence of Allah’s wish for it and not due to Allah’s inability to make it exist.

4. The fourth level is to have belief that Allah is the Creator of everything and that there is not a single atom in the heavens or in the earth, or that which is between them, that Allah did not create. He is the creator of their movements and their lack of movements. There is no creator besides Him and no Lord except Him.

Source: A’laam as-Sunnah al-Manshoorah by Haafiz ibn Ahmad al-Hakamee

The above list is the same four items mentioned in 150. Destiny (Qadaa and Qadr) ( http://wp.me/pLuqX-5w) under “Shaykh Al-‘Uthaymeen identified four main issues necessary for the belief in Qadr to be correct and complete”. These are so important, I wanted to provide another Scholar Haafiz Ibn Ahmad al-Hakamee’s description too.

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152. Benefits of believing in Qadr

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1) It grants its believer the peace of mind and sense of relaxation to know, that which has befallen him, was never meant to pass him by and that which has passed him was never meant to befall him.

2) It gives its believer the will and determination to do righteous deeds and grants him the knowledge of the fact that nothing can harm him or stop him except that which Allah has willed

3) Teaches its believer not to be arrogant and vain, but rather to be modest and humble because he realizes that his actions are created by Allah and that such and such an event occurred, not because he was rich or was given beauty and good lineage but rather because it was the Will of Allah.

4) Teaches its believer to do as much as is in his capability and then leave the rest up to Allah, and then to be satisfied with the result as he did as much as his ability permitted him to do so.

Source: http://www.sunnahonline.com/library/beliefs/0072.htm

Shaykh Al-‘Uthaymeen listed seven benefits of belief in Destiny:

1. It is from the completion of Eemaan (Faith), and Eemaan is incomplete without it.

2. It is from the completion of Eemaan in Tawheed ar-Ruboobiyyah, because Allaah’s destiny and predetermination are among His actions.

3. It involves humans referring their affairs to their Lord. Because humans know that everything is according to Allaah’s destiny, they will turn to Him in times of difficulty to repel and remove it from them, and they will attribute their times of good to Allaah and know that it is a favour from Him.

4. It allows humans to know their true status [in relationship to God] and to not be proud when they do good.

5. Calamities become easier to deal with when humans know that they are ultimately from Allah, as He said:

“Allah guides the heart of whoever believes in Him.” (Surah at-Taghaabun 64: 11)

6. Attribution of the worldly pleasures to their true source prevents their attribution to their immediate providers. When those who do not believe in Qadr seek the favors of worldly leaders and receive what they seek from them, they attribute it to the favors of the leaders and forget that it is basically from the favors of the Creator.

7. Humans come to know the wisdom of Allah through belief in Qadr. If they reflect on the creation and the incredible changes occurring in it, they become acquainted with Allaah’s wisdom. In contrast with those who do not believe in Qadr. They are unable to obtain this benefit.

Source: Sharh al-‘Aqeedah al-Waasitiyyah

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Written by S Ibrahim

Nov 8, 2011 at 7:00 am

151. Two main groups who erred in Qadaa and Qadr

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There were two Schools of thoughts among Ancient Greek (Pagans):

  1. Epicureans: Free will. Hedonism – Seek what’s pleasurable in life by any means
  2. Stoics: No free will – predetermined. You are a puppet on the string

Muslims went astray (i.e. got wrong ideas about destiny) after the Greek literatures were translated. Deviants among Muslims

A) The Jabrites (Jabariyyah) who claimed that the creature is forced to do its acts without any choice on its part. They are refuted by two points:

  • Allah attributed human acts to them and made them earning for which they are rewarded or punished. If they were forced to do them, the attribution of the acts to them would not be correct and punishment for them would be oppression. He says

“Today every soul will be rewarded for what they earned.” (Qur’an Chapter Ghaafir 40: 17)

  • Everyone knows the difference between an act of choice and a forced act in reality and in judgment. So if someone transgressed against another and claimed that he was forced to do it by Allah’s Qadaa and Qadr it would be considered stupidity

Before doing an act, the sinful person does not know what is destined for him and it is within his ability to do or not do it. So how can he take a wrong path and defend his action with the unknown destiny. Is it not more suitable for him to take the correct path and say: This is what was destined for me?

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Satan has no control over us. We can’t say “Shaytan forced me to do evil deeds”. Neither Allah nor Shaitan forces people.

And Shaitan (Satan) will say when the matter has been decided: “Verily, Allah promised you a promise of truth. And I too promised you, but I betrayed you. I had no authority over you except that I called you, so you responded to me. So blame me not, but blame yourselves… [Surah Ibrahim 14:22]

}

B) The Qadrites (Qadariyyah) who claim that the creature is independent in its actions and that Allah has no will or power or creation in it. Their claim is also refuted by two points:

  • Their claim contradicts Allah’s statements:

“Allah is the creator of everything.” (Surah az-Zumar 39:62)

“And Allah created you and what you do.” (Surah as-Saaffaat 37: 96)

  • Allah is the owner of the heavens and earth.How is it possible that there be in His dominion things which are not dependent on His will and creation?

(Sharh Lum’atul-I’tiqaad)

Correct Faith: Humans freely choose, and Allah knows already what humans will choose. His knowledge of their choice didn’t make them to opt for that choice. Relative to Allah, the choices are known. Relative to us, the choices aren’t known until the situation occurs. Arguing / reflecting beyond this takes us to a situation with no answers.

Addendum: One brother requested more info on “Humans freely choose and Allah knows already what humans will choose”. How is that Allah knows what a person would do (in future), and yet Allah is not forcing that person?.

The answer: Allah is the Creator of everything, including time. He knows everything that happened everywhere, is happening and will happen. We only know a limited past events; we can focus only on a few things that are happening. And, we don’t know future. So, we can’t apply human examples to Allah.

But, at human level we can give a few examples where we may guess certain things in future, yet we are not forcing them. A simple one: We know (and say) that the Sun will set in the West. Do we force it to set in the West? No. A teacher may say, based on his assessment, that certain students will fail in the exams. The teacher’s comment didn’t force the students to fail. The students’ failure to study caused their failure in exams. (Again, Creator is not like Teacher)

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Written by S Ibrahim

Nov 7, 2011 at 3:37 pm

150. Destiny (Qadaa and Qadr)

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Imam Ibn Qudaamah wrote: “And from the Attributes of Allaah the Most High is that He is the Doer of whatever He wills. Nothing occurs except with His Will. Nothing in the world is outside of His valuation (taqdeer) and everything happens according to His planning (tadbeer). The decreed destiny is unavoidable and nothing goes beyond what is written in the Protected Tablet (al-Lawh al-Mahfooz).”

Qadaa / Qadha (القَضاء) linguistically means hukm (ruling; judgement) and Qadr / Qadar means taqdeer (measurement).

Shaykh Al-‘Uthaymeen said regarding them: “Qadaa and Qadr have different meanings when mentioned together and are synonyms when mentioned separately… Qadr is what Allaah destined from eternity to exist in His creation. On the other hand, Qadaa is what Allaah decides concerning His creatures regarding their creation, annihilation or transformation. Thus, Qadr precedes Qadaa.” (Sharh al-‘Aqeedah al-Waasitiyyah, p. 411)

Faith in qadaa and qadr is one of the six pillars of Imaan / eemaan. “Eemaan is that you truly believe in Allaah and His angels and His books and His messengers and in the Last Day, and that you truly believe in qadr (Predecree) the good of it and the bad of it.” (Part of the hadeeth narrated by ‘Umar ibn al Khattaab recorded by Muslim, Ahmad, ibn Maajah and at Tirmidhee)

Shaykh Al-‘Uthaymeen identified four main issues necessary for the belief in Qadr to be correct and complete:
1. Belief that Allaah knows everything in general and in detail by His prior knowledge based on His statement:

“Do you not know that Allaah knows what is in the heavens and earth? Indeed that is in a book. Indeed that is easy for Allaah.” (Qur’an Chapter al-Hajj, 22: 80)

2. That Allaah wrote in the Lawh al-Mahfooz the destiny of everything based on Allaah’s statement:

“No calamity strikes in the earth or in yourselves except that it is in a book before I bring it into existence.” (Qur’an Chapter al-Hadeed, 57: 22)

And based on the Prophet’s statement: “Indeed Allaah fixed the destiny of creation 50,000 years before creating the heavens and earth.” (Muslim).

3. Everything in the heavens and earth is by Allaah’s will and wish, between His mercy and wisdom. He guides whom He wishes by His mercy and misguides whom He wishes by His wisdom. Whatever happens is in accordance with His prior knowledge and what He wrote in the Lawh al-Mahfooz based on His statements:

“Indeed I created everything measured.” (Qur’an Chapter al-Qamar, 54: 49)

“Whoever Allaah wishes to guide, He opens his chest to Islam…” (Qur’an Chapter al-An‘aam, 6: 125)

Whereby He attributes guidance and misguidance to His wish.

4. That everything in the heavens and earth are creations of Allah Most High and there is no other creator besides Him or Lord except Him based on His statement:

“He created everything and destined its measure.”(Qur’an Chapter al-Furqaan, 25: 2)

(Sharh Lum‘atul-I‘tiqaad, pp. 92-3)

About al lawh al mahfoodh / Lawh al-Mahfooz (the Preserved Tablet) by Shaykh Muhammad ibn Saalih al ‘Uthaymeen:

We do not know what its form is, from which substance (it is made), whether it is made from wood or from iron. We do not know its size nor its width. Allah is more knowledgeable about that. And it is obligatory for us to truly believe that there is a Tablet in which Allah wrote the decreed measures of everything. And we are not entitled to delve (into this matter) beyond that.  (Sharh al Arba’een an Nawawiyyah)

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